UKOUG2021

Tuesday, August 03, 2021

Alter SQL Profiles from Exact to Force Matching

You can use DBMS_SQLTUNE.ALTER_SQL_PROFILE to change the status, name, description, or category of a SQL profile, but you can't alter it from exact to force matching.  Instead, you would have to recreate it.  That is easy if you have the script that you used to create it in the first place.  There is another way.

Oracle support note How to Move SQL Profiles from One Database to Another (Including to Higher Versions) (Doc ID 457531.1) describes a process to export SQL profiles to a staging table that can be imported into another database.  This provides an opportunity to alter a profile by updating the data in the staging table.  There are two columns in the staging table that have to be updated.

  • SQLFLAGS must be updated from 0 (indicating an exact match profile) to 1 (indicating a force match profile)
  • SIGNATURE must be recalculated as a force matching signature using DBMS_SQLTUNE.SQLTEXT_TO_SIGNATURE.

Demonstration

I am going to create a small table with a unique index.  

CREATE TABLE t (a not null, b) AS 
SELECT rownum, ceil(sqrt(rownum)) FROM dual connect by level <= 100;
create unique index t_idx on t(a);
exec dbms_stats.gather_table_stats(user,'T');

ttitle off
select * from dba_sql_profiles where name like 'my%sql_profile%';
explain plan for SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 42;
ttitle 'Default Execution plan without profiles (index scan)'
select * from table(dbms_xplan.display(null,null,'ADVANCED +ADAPTIVE -PROJECTION'));

Without any SQL profiles, when I query by the unique key I get a unique index scan.

Plan hash value: 2929955852

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                   | Name  | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT            |       |     1 |     6 |     1   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID| T     |     1 |     6 |     1   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  2 |   INDEX UNIQUE SCAN         | T_IDX |     1 |       |     0   (0)| 00:00:01 |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Now I am going to create two SQL profiles.  I have deliberately put the same SQL text into both SQL Profiles.

  • my_sql_profile is exact matching
  • my_sql_profile_force is force matching.

DECLARE
signature INTEGER;
sql_txt CLOB;
h       SYS.SQLPROF_ATTR;
BEGIN
sql_txt := q'[
SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54
]';
h := SYS.SQLPROF_ATTR(
q'[BEGIN_OUTLINE_DATA]',
q'[IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS]',
q'[FULL(@"SEL$1" "T"@"SEL$1")]',
q'[END_OUTLINE_DATA]');
signature := DBMS_SQLTUNE.SQLTEXT_TO_SIGNATURE(sql_txt);
DBMS_SQLTUNE.IMPORT_SQL_PROFILE (
sql_text    => sql_txt,
profile     => h,
name        => 'my_sql_profile',
category    => 'DEFAULT',
validate    => TRUE,
replace     => TRUE,
force_match => FALSE 
);
END;
/

DECLARE
signature INTEGER;
sql_txt CLOB;
h       SYS.SQLPROF_ATTR;
BEGIN
sql_txt := q'[
SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54
]';
h := SYS.SQLPROF_ATTR(
q'[BEGIN_OUTLINE_DATA]',
q'[IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS]',
q'[FULL(@"SEL$1" "T"@"SEL$1")]',
q'[END_OUTLINE_DATA]');
signature := DBMS_SQLTUNE.SQLTEXT_TO_SIGNATURE(sql_txt);
DBMS_SQLTUNE.IMPORT_SQL_PROFILE (
sql_text    => sql_txt,
profile     => h,
name        => 'my_sql_profile_force',
category    => 'DEFAULT',
validate    => TRUE,
replace     => TRUE,
force_match => TRUE 
);
END;
/
ttitle off
select * from dba_sql_profiles where name like 'my%sql_profile%';

NAME                           CATEGORY               SIGNATURE SQL_TEXT                                                                         CREATED
------------------------------ ---------- --------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------
LAST_MODIFIED                  DESCRIPTION          TYPE    STATUS   FOR    TASK_ID TASK_EXEC_NAME       TASK_OBJ_ID TASK_FND_ID TASK_REC_ID TASK_CON_DBID
------------------------------ -------------------- ------- -------- --- ---------- -------------------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -------------
my_sql_profile                 DEFAULT      9394869341287877934                                                                                  31-JUL-21 10.47.34.243454
                                                                SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54
31-JUL-21 10.47.34.000000                           MANUAL  ENABLED  NO

my_sql_profile_force           DEFAULT     11431056000319719221                                                                                  31-JUL-21 10.47.34.502721
                                                                SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54
31-JUL-21 10.47.34.000000                           MANUAL  ENABLED  YES

The force match profile works if the literal value is different from that in the profiles.

explain plan for SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 42;
select * from table(dbms_xplan.display(null,null,'ADVANCED +ADAPTIVE -PROJECTION'));

Plan hash value: 1601196873
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation         | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |      |     1 |     6 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |     1 |     6 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
…
Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   1 - filter("A"=42)

Hint Report (identified by operation id / Query Block Name / Object Alias):
Total hints for statement: 2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

   0 -  STATEMENT
           -  IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS

   1 -  SEL$1 / T@SEL$1
           -  FULL(@"SEL$1" "T"@"SEL$1")

Note
-----
   - SQL profile "my_sql_profile_force" used for this statement

The exact match profile takes precedence of the force match profile.

explain plan for SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54;
select * from table(dbms_xplan.display(null,null,'ADVANCED +ADAPTIVE -PROJECTION'));

Plan hash value: 1601196873

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation         | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |      |     1 |     6 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |     1 |     6 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
…
Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   1 - filter("A"=54)

Hint Report (identified by operation id / Query Block Name / Object Alias):
Total hints for statement: 2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

   0 -  STATEMENT
           -  IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS

   1 -  SEL$1 / T@SEL$1
           -  FULL(@"SEL$1" "T"@"SEL$1")

Note
-----
   - SQL profile "my_sql_profile" used for this statement

I am now going to follow the process to export the SQL Profiles to a staging table, and subsequently reimport them.

exec DBMS_SQLTUNE.CREATE_STGTAB_SQLPROF(table_name=>'STAGE',schema_name=>user);
exec DBMS_SQLTUNE.PACK_STGTAB_SQLPROF (staging_table_name =>'STAGE',profile_name=>'my_sql_profile');
exec DBMS_SQLTUNE.PACK_STGTAB_SQLPROF (staging_table_name =>'STAGE',profile_name=>'my_sql_profile_force');

There is a row in the staging table for each profile and you can see the differences between them.

select signature, sql_handle, obj_name, obj_type, sql_text, sqlflags from STAGE;

            SIGNATURE SQL_HANDLE                     OBJ_NAME
--------------------- ------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------
OBJ_TYPE                       SQL_TEXT                                                                           SQLFLAGS
------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
  9394869341287877934 SQL_826147e3c6ac0d2e           my_sql_profile
SQL_PROFILE                                                                                                              0
                               SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54

 11431056000319719221 SQL_9ea344de32a78735           my_sql_profile_force
SQL_PROFILE                                                                                                              1
                               SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54

I will update the staging table using this PL/SQL loop (because SQL doesn't recognise TRUE as a boolean constant).

DECLARE
  l_sig INTEGER;
BEGIN
  FOR i IN (
    SELECT rowid, stage.* FROM stage WHERE sqlflags = 0 FOR UPDATE
  ) LOOP
    l_sig := dbms_sqltune.sqltext_to_signature(i.sql_text,TRUE);
    UPDATE stage
    SET    signature = l_sig
    ,      sqlflags = 1
    WHERE  sqlflags = 0
    AND    rowid = i.rowid;
  END LOOP;
END;
/

And now the profiles look the same.

select signature, sql_handle, obj_name, obj_type, sql_text, sqlflags from STAGE;

            SIGNATURE SQL_HANDLE                     OBJ_NAME
--------------------- ------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------
OBJ_TYPE                       SQL_TEXT                                                                           SQLFLAGS
------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
 11431056000319719221 SQL_826147e3c6ac0d2e           my_sql_profile
SQL_PROFILE                                                                                                              1
                               SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54

 11431056000319719221 SQL_9ea344de32a78735           my_sql_profile_force
SQL_PROFILE                                                                                                              1
                               SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54

But I can't just reimport my_sql_profile from the staging replacing the one in the database because I will get ORA-13841: SQL profile named my_sql_profile already exists for a different signature/category pair. To avoid this error I must either drop the profile or rename it.  

I am going to rename the existing exact matching profile, and also disable it and move it to another category to stop it from matching my statement in preference to the force matching profile (see previous post Clashing SQL Profiles - Exact Matching Profiles Take Precedence Over Force Matching Profiles), and thus I can go back to it later if needed.

I will drop my example force matching profile.  I no longer need that.

Then, I can reimport the profile from the staging table.

exec dbms_sqltune.alter_sql_profile(name=>'my_sql_profile', attribute_name=>'NAME',value=>'my_old_sql_profile');
exec dbms_sqltune.alter_sql_profile(name=>'my_old_sql_profile', attribute_name=>'CATEGORY',value=>'DO_NOT_USE');
exec dbms_sqltune.alter_sql_profile(name=>'my_old_sql_profile', attribute_name=>'STATUS',value=>'DISABLED');
exec dbms_sqltune.drop_sql_profile('my_sql_profile_force',TRUE);
EXEC DBMS_SQLTUNE.UNPACK_STGTAB_SQLPROF(profile_name => 'my_sql_profile', replace => TRUE, staging_table_name => 'STAGE');

I can see in the SQL profile table that my SQL profile is now force matching, and it has a different signature to the old one that is exact matching.

ttitle off
select * from dba_sql_profiles where name like 'my%sql_profile%';

NAME                           CATEGORY               SIGNATURE SQL_TEXT                                                                         CREATED
------------------------------ ---------- --------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------
LAST_MODIFIED                  DESCRIPTION          TYPE    STATUS   FOR    TASK_ID TASK_EXEC_NAME       TASK_OBJ_ID TASK_FND_ID TASK_REC_ID TASK_CON_DBID
------------------------------ -------------------- ------- -------- --- ---------- -------------------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -------------
my_old_sql_profile             DO_NOT_USE   9394869341287877934                                                                                  31-JUL-21 10.54.58.694037
                                                                SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54
31-JUL-21 10.55.00.000000                           MANUAL  DISABLED NO

my_sql_profile                 DEFAULT     11431056000319719221                                                                                  31-JUL-21 10.55.01.005377
                                                                SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54
31-JUL-21 10.55.01.000000                           MANUAL  ENABLED  YES

Both my queries now match the new force matching version of the profile.

explain plan for SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 42;
ttitle 'Execution plan with force match profile (full scan)'
select * from table(dbms_xplan.display(null,null,'ADVANCED +ADAPTIVE -PROJECTION'));

Plan hash value: 1601196873

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation         | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |      |     1 |     6 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |     1 |     6 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
…
Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   1 - filter("A"=42)

Hint Report (identified by operation id / Query Block Name / Object Alias):
Total hints for statement: 2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

   0 -  STATEMENT
           -  IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS

   1 -  SEL$1 / T@SEL$1
           -  FULL(@"SEL$1" "T"@"SEL$1")

Note
-----
   - SQL profile "my_sql_profile" used for this statement

explain plan for SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54;
select * from table(dbms_xplan.display(null,null,'ADVANCED +ADAPTIVE -PROJECTION'));

Plan hash value: 1601196873

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation         | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |      |     1 |     6 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS FULL| T    |     1 |     6 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

…
Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   1 - filter("A"=54)

Hint Report (identified by operation id / Query Block Name / Object Alias):
Total hints for statement: 2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

   0 -  STATEMENT
           -  IGNORE_OPTIM_EMBEDDED_HINTS

   1 -  SEL$1 / T@SEL$1
           -  FULL(@"SEL$1" "T"@"SEL$1")

Note
-----
   - SQL profile "my_sql_profile" used for this statement
The script used for this demonstration is available on GitHub

Monday, August 02, 2021

Detecting Clashing SQL Profiles

In my last post, I discussed the possible undesirable consequences of force and exact matching SQL profiles on statements with the same force matching signature.  The question is how do you detect such profiles?

I have created three profiles on very similar SQL statements that only differ in the literal value of a predicate.  One of them is force matching, the others are exact matching.  The signature reported by DBA_SQL_PROFILES is the force matching signature for force matching profiles, and the exact matching signature for exact matching profiles.

select * from dba_sql_profiles;

NAME                           CATEGORY               SIGNATURE SQL_TEXT                                           CREATED
------------------------------ ---------- --------------------- -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------
LAST_MODIFIED                  DESCRIPTION          TYPE    STATUS   FOR    TASK_ID TASK_EXEC_NAME       TASK_OBJ_ID TASK_FND_ID TASK_REC_ID TASK_CON_DBID
------------------------------ -------------------- ------- -------- --- ---------- -------------------- ----------- ----------- ----------- -------------
my_sql_profile_force           DEFAULT     11431056000319719221                                                    16:09:33 01/08/2021
                                                                SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54
16:09:33 01/08/2021                                 MANUAL  ENABLED  YES

my_sql_profile_24              DEFAULT     12140764948557749245                                                    16:09:33 01/08/2021
                                                                SELECT * FROM t
                                                                WHERE a = 24
16:09:33 01/08/2021                                 MANUAL  ENABLED  NO

my_sql_profile_42              DEFAULT     14843900676141266266                                                    16:09:33 01/08/2021
                                                                SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 42
16:09:33 01/08/2021                                 MANUAL  ENABLED  NO
In order to be able to compare the profiles, I need to calculate the force matching signature for the exact matching profiles using DBMS_SQLTUNE.SQLTEXT_TO_SIGNATURE.  I can't use the Boolean constant TRUE parameter in SQL.  Instead, I have used a PL/SQL function in a with clause.
REM dup_sql_profiles1.sql 
WITH function sig(p_sql_text CLOB, p_number INTEGER) RETURN NUMBER IS
 l_sig NUMBER;
BEGIN
 IF p_number > 0 THEN 
  l_sig := dbms_sqltune.sqltext_to_signature(p_sql_text,TRUE);
 ELSIF p_number = 0 THEN 
  l_sig := dbms_sqltune.sqltext_to_signature(p_sql_text,FALSE);
 END IF;
 RETURN l_sig;
END;
x as (
select CASE WHEN force_matching = 'NO'  THEN signature ELSE sig(sql_text, 0) END exact_sig
,      CASE WHEN force_matching = 'YES' THEN signature ELSE sig(sql_text, 1) END force_sig
,      p.*
from   dba_sql_profiles p
where  (status = 'ENABLED' or force_matching = 'NO')
), y as (
select x.*
, row_number() over (partition by category, force_sig order by force_matching desc, exact_sig nulls first) profile#
, count(*) over (partition by category, force_sig) num_profiles
from x
)
select profile#, num_profiles, force_sig, exact_sig, name, created, category, status, force_matching, sql_text
from y
where num_profiles > 1
order by force_sig, force_matching desc, exact_sig
/
 We can see these three profiles are grouped together.  The force matching signature calculated on the exact matching profiles is the same as the signature on the force matching profile.  Now I can start to make some decisions about whether I should retain the exact matching profiles or remove them and just use the force matching profile.
Prof   Num        Force Matching        Exact Matching
   # Profs             Signature             Signature NAME                           CREATED                      CATEGORY             STATUS   FOR
---- ----- --------------------- --------------------- ------------------------------ ---------------------------- -------------------- -------- ---
SQL_TEXT
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   1     3  11431056000319719221                       my_sql_profile_force           16:35:36 01/08/2021          DEFAULT              ENABLED  YES

SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 54

   2     3                        12140764948557749245 my_sql_profile_24              16:35:36 01/08/2021          DEFAULT              ENABLED  NO

SELECT * FROM t
WHERE a = 24

   3     3                        14843900676141266266 my_sql_profile_42              16:35:36 01/08/2021          DEFAULT              ENABLED  NO

SELECT * FROM t WHERE a = 42
The SQL statements in this example are absurdly simple.  In real life that is rarely the case.  Sometimes it can be a struggle to see where two complex statements differ.
In the next query, I compare enabled force matching SQL profiles to any exact matching profiles in the same category with the same force matching signature.  The full query is on GitHub.
REM dup_sql_profiles2.sql
WITH function sig(p_sql_text CLOB, p_number INTEGER) RETURN NUMBER IS
…
END sig;
function norm(p_queryin CLOB) RETURN CLOB IS
…
END norm;
function str_diff(p_str1 CLOB, p_str2 CLOB) RETURN NUMBER IS
…
END str_diff;
x as (
select CASE WHEN force_matching = 'NO'  THEN signature ELSE sig(sql_text, 0) END exact_sig
,      CASE WHEN force_matching = 'YES' THEN signature ELSE sig(sql_text, 1) END force_sig
,      p.*
from   dba_sql_profiles p
), y as (
select f.force_matching, f.force_sig, f.name force_name, f.created force_created, f.status force_status
,      e.force_matching exact_matching, e.exact_sig, e.name exact_name
,      e.created exact_created, e.status exact_status, e.category
,      norm(e.sql_text) esql_text, norm(f.sql_text) fsql_text
from   x e
,      x f
where  f.force_matching = 'YES'
and    e.force_matching = 'NO'
and    e.force_sig = f.force_sig
and    e.category = f.category
and    e.name != f.name
and    f.status = 'ENABLED'
), z as (
select y.*
,      str_diff(fsql_Text, esql_text) diff_len
from y
)
select force_matching, force_Sig, force_name, force_created, force_status
,      exact_matching, exact_sig, exact_name, exact_Created, exact_status
, substr(fsql_text,1,diff_len) common_text
, substr(fsql_text,diff_len+1) fdiff_text, substr(esql_text,diff_len+1) ediff_text
from z
order by force_sig
/
I have shown the common part of both statements, from the start to the first difference, and then also how the rest of each statement continues.
It is not enough to simply compare two statements character by character.  Both the force and exact matching signatures are "calculated on the normalized SQL text. The normalization includes the removal of white space and the uppercasing of all non-literal strings".  However, neither the normalised SQL, nor the normalisation mechanism is exposed by Oracle.  Therefore, in this query, I have included my own rudimentary normalisation function (based on an idea from AskTOM) that I apply first and a string comparison function.  You can see that normalisation has eliminated the line feed in from the statement in my_sql_profile_24.
Now I can see my two exact matching profiles match my force matching profile.  I can see the common part of the SQL up to the literal value, and the different parts of the text are just the literal value.  
           Force Matching Force                          Force                        Force               Exact Matching Exact                          Exact                        Exact
FOR             Signature Name                           Created Date                 Status   EXA             Signature Name                           Created Date                 Status
--- --------------------- ------------------------------ ---------------------------- -------- --- --------------------- ------------------------------ ---------------------------- --------
Common Text
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Force Text                                                                                          Exact Text
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
YES  11431056000319719221 my_sql_profile_force           16:35:36 01/08/2021          ENABLED  NO   12140764948557749245 my_sql_profile_24              16:35:36 01/08/2021          ENABLED
SELECT * FROM T WHERE A =
54                                                                                                  24

                                                                                      ENABLED  NO   14843900676141266266 my_sql_profile_42              16:35:36 01/08/2021          ENABLED
SELECT * FROM T WHERE A =
54
Both the queries mentioned in this blog are available on GitHub.